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16                                          FLORA   INDTCA.
if not so complex as that of zoology, is more difficult at the
outset, from ihr want of standards of comparison hetween the
organs of plants and those he is familiar with in himself as a
member of the sister kingdom. Applying these remarks to
praetirr, the botanical student finds that he has much to un-
learn at the very outset; in nuuiy eases he has misapplied the
terms root, stem, leaf, etc., and contracted mpst erroneous
ideas i>f their structure and functions; while he is startled to
find that the popular divisions of plants into .trees, shrubs,
and herbs,—leafy and leafless, water and land, erect, clinching,
or creeping,—are valueless as guules to the elements of
the science.
It Is not however to l>e supposed, because pure physiology
is of secondary importance to the right understanding of the
aiFimties of plants, that lx>tany is therefore a loss noble or
philosophical study than x<x>logy; since we find anatomy, de-
velopment, and morphology, occupying a very far higher rank
in proportion. Being deprived, as he is in most cases, of all
technical aids to tl$ determination even of the wmmoner
exotic natural families, the systematist is complied to com-
mence with the knife and microscope, and can never relinquish
thefif* mtptements. Systematic Botany i* indeed based upon
development; and no one can peruse, however carelessly, the
most terse diagnosis of a natural order or gcnua of plant*,
without being struck with the variety and extent of know-
ledge embodied $u* twwittal to it» definition ami recognition.
Not only arc the situation and form, division or multiplica-
tion, relative arrest or growth, of the individmtJ organs? ex*
aetly defined, in strictly scientific and scrupulously accurate
language, hut the'development of each U wwcled frwu an
eJwly stage: the vernation and stijiulatiorx of th« learn*; the
aestivation of the young calyx and .corolla, aud thtnr duration
relatively to other organs j the development and cohesion of
the stamens; the pos'Uiou and insertion of the anther; its
j the cohesion or separation of the carpel*, ami the
of thni'ldevafopinenf- from the )>ud to the mature fruit,